harden

harden 1 Harden, solidify, indurate, petrify, cake are comparable when they mean to make or to become physically hard or solid.
Harden usually expresses an opposition to soften and therefore may be as often used of the process as of the effect. The term suggests a change in degree with an approach toward a state of firm consistency or texture, though it need not imply impenetrability or resistance to efforts to break, cut, pierce, or bend
{

Iava as it cools hardens into rock

}
{

harden candy by chilling it

}
Solidify, although differing little from harden, usually expresses an opposition to liquefy and places more stress upon the effect produced than upon the process involved; the term, therefore, suggests a change in quality rather than in degree and is more often applied to a mass subject to compacting or consolidation
{

Iava becomes rock when it is solidified

}
{

water solidifies into ice

}
Indurate, which means to make very hard or very compact, implies usually the making of something that is firm in texture still harder
{

heat indurates clay

}
{

surgeons . . . spend raptures upon perfect specimens of indurated veins, distorted joints— E. B. Browning

}
Petrify implies a making or becoming stone or stonelike in hardness; the word is used of organic bodies that by a process (called petrifaction) of infiltration by water containing mineral deposits (as silica, calcium carbonate) and the replacement, particle by particle, of the organic matter by the introduced mineral become replaced by stony mineral while the original form is more or less perfectly retained.
Cake implies the formation into a firm, hard, or solid mass (as by baking, fusing, or congealing)
{

[a barrel of gunpowder] had taken water, and the powder was caked as hard as a stone— Defoe

}
{

the salt had caked in the shakers and did not flow

}
Analogous words: *compact, consolidate, concentrate: compress, condense, *contract
Antonyms: soften
Contrasted words: *Iiquefy, melt
2 Harden, season, acclimatize, acclimate denote to make (as a person) proof against hardship, strain, or exposure.
All imply a becoming accustomed or adapted by time or experience.
Harden implies habituation that toughens one and makes one insensible of one's own pain or discomfort or callous and insensitive to others' misery
{

hardened to the rigors of arctic exp!oration

}
{

I could . . . hear faint echoes of their grief. It was an experience to which I never became hardenedHeiser

}
{

its influence did not harden him; he has always risen above cynicism— Triebel

}
Season implies a gradual bringing into mature, sound, efficient condition; it does not, when referred to persons, necessarily imply that what is to be undergone is uncongenial
{

a seasoned marathon runner

}
{

a seasoned actor

}
{

with much less compass of muscle than his foe, that which he had was more seasoned—iron and compact— Lytton

}
Acclimatize and acclimate imply adaptation to a new and adverse climate or, by extension, to new and strange surroundings in general. Some writers have distinguished acclimatize from acclimate by restricting the first to adaptation by human agency, but this distinction is not commonly observed
{

a race . . . well seated in a region, fixed to the soil by agriculture, acclimatized by natural selection— Ripley

}
{

I have not been long enough at this table to get well acclimatedHolmes

}
Analogous words: *habituate, accustom, inure: *adapt, adjust, accommodate
Antonyms: soften
Contrasted words: enervate, emasculate (see UNNERVE): *weaken, debilitate, enfeeble, sap, undermine

New Dictionary of Synonyms. 2014.

Synonyms:

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Harden — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Arthur Harden (1865–1940), britischer Chemiker und Nobelpreisträger Cecil M. Harden (1894–1984), US amerikanische Politikerin Ingo Harden (* 1928), deutscher Musikkritiker und Autor James Harden (* 1989),… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Harden — Hard en (h[aum]rd n), v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Hardened} ( nd); p. pr. & vb. n. {Hardening} ( n*[i^]ng).] [OE. hardnen, hardenen.] 1. To make hard or harder; to make firm or compact; to indurate; as, to harden clay or iron. [1913 Webster] 2. To… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • harden — hard‧en [ˈhɑːdn ǁ ˈhɑːrdn] verb [intransitive] FINANCE if prices on a financial market harden, they go up: • Tesco hardened 4 pence to 225.5 pence. * * * harden UK US /ˈhɑːdən/ verb [I] UK FINANCE, STOCK MARKET ► if prices or share prices harden …   Financial and business terms

  • harden — [v1] make or become solid amalgamate, anneal, bake, brace, buttress, cake, calcify, callous, cement, close, clot, coagulate, compact, congeal, consolidate, contract, crystallize, curdle, densify, dry, firm, fix, fortify, fossilize, freeze, gird,… …   New thesaurus

  • harden — [härd′ n] vt. [ME hardnen < ON harthna & < ME hard, HARD] 1. to make solid, rigid, or firm 2. to make callous [to harden one s heart] 3. to accustom to varying or adverse conditions or climate vi. to become solid, rigid, callous, etc …   English World dictionary

  • Harden — Hard en, v. i. 1. To become hard or harder; to acquire solidity, or more compactness; as, mortar hardens by drying. [1913 Webster] The deliberate judgment of those who knew him [A. Lincoln] has hardened into tradition. The Century. [1913 Webster] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Harden — Harden, so v.w. Gemeine Muräne …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Harden [1] — Harden, Dorf in Wales, s. Hawarden …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Harden [2] — Harden, Maximilian, Schriftsteller, geb. 20. Okt. 1861 in Berlin, hieß ursprünglich Witkowski, legte jedoch diesen Namen gleichzeitig mit seinen Angehörigen um das Jahr 1886 wegen eines Familienkonflikts nieder und nannte sich H., während sein… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Harden — Harden, Maximilian, Schriftsteller, geb. 20. Okt. 1861 in Berlin, Herausgeber (seit 1892) der Wochenschrift »Zukunft«, schrieb polit. und soziale Essays u. d. T. »Apostata« (2 Bde., 1892) …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.